Credit: Original article can be found here
Facts for Prelims (FFP)
Source: LM, IE
Context: Finland became the 31st member of NATO. Also, Britain will become the 12th member to join CPTPP (Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership) -the first to join the partnership since its inception.
|Finland shares a 1,340km long border with Russia and had signed a “friendship agreement,” with the Soviet Union to be a neutral country (Military non-alignment- ‘Finlandisation’). However, after Russia launched the invasion of Ukraine last year, Finland decided to join NATO.
|Britain joined CPTPP to build ties around the world after leaving the European Union (BREXIT).
|Formation||1949 (HQ: Brussels, Belgium)|
|Members||31 member countries (as of 2023, including Finland)|
|Founding Members||Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States|
|Article 5||A key provision of the NATO treaty states that an attack on one member is an attack on all members. It has been invoked only once after the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States. However, NATO’s protection does not extend to members’ civil wars or internal coups.|
|Alliances||Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), Mediterranean Dialogue, Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (ICI)|
|Participants||Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, New Zealand, Singapore and Vietnam|
|Date signed||8 March 2018|
|Background||In 2005, a trade agreement between a small group of Pacific Rim countries comprising Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore led to the formation of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) consisting of 12 nation-states. After the withdrawal of the US (2017), the remaining eleven signatories, known as the TPP-11, continued talks and their efforts led to the formation of CPTPP.|
|Significance||CPTPP removes 99% of tariffs on goods and services. It also includes commitments to combat wildlife trafficking and prevent environmental abuses such as unsustainable logging and fishing, with trade penalties for non-compliance. All 11 countries of CPTPP are also members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).|
|About Brexit||Brexit refers to the U.K.’s decision to leave the European Union. The country formally left the EU in January 2020, after a referendum in 2016.
|India on CPTPP||India did not join CPTPP as the treaty places stricter labour and environmental standards|