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Facts for Prelims (FFP)

Source: LM, IE

 Context: Finland became the 31st member of NATO. Also, Britain will become the 12th member to join CPTPP (Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership) -the first to join the partnership since its inception.


Finland Britain
Finland shares a 1,340km long border with Russia and had signed a “friendship agreement,” with the Soviet Union to be a neutral country (Military non-alignment- ‘Finlandisation’). However, after Russia launched the invasion of Ukraine last year, Finland decided to join NATO.


Britain joined CPTPP to build ties around the world after leaving the European Union (BREXIT).


About NATO

NATO Details
Formation 1949 (HQ: Brussels, Belgium)
Members 31 member countries (as of 2023, including Finland)

Founding Members Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States
Article 5 A key provision of the NATO treaty states that an attack on one member is an attack on all members. It has been invoked only once after the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States. However, NATO’s protection does not extend to members’ civil wars or internal coups.
Alliances Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), Mediterranean Dialogue, Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (ICI)

About CPTPP:

Participants Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, New Zealand, Singapore and Vietnam

Date signed 8 March 2018
Background In 2005, a trade agreement between a small group of Pacific Rim countries comprising Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore led to the formation of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) consisting of 12 nation-states. After the withdrawal of the US (2017), the remaining eleven signatories, known as the TPP-11, continued talks and their efforts led to the formation of CPTPP.
Significance CPTPP removes 99% of tariffs on goods and services. It also includes commitments to combat wildlife trafficking and prevent environmental abuses such as unsustainable logging and fishing, with trade penalties for non-compliance. All 11 countries of CPTPP are also members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).
About Brexit Brexit refers to the U.K.’s decision to leave the European Union. The country formally left the EU in January 2020, after a referendum in 2016.


India on CPTPP India did not join CPTPP as the treaty places stricter labour and environmental standards